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South Pacific
International actors and agreements in the region

See Global action.

UNEP Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (ROAP). ••>

UNEP Regional Resource Centre for Asia and Pacific (RRC.AP). ••>

UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). ••>

UNEP Regional Seas Programme. ••>

UNEP Global programme of action for the protection of the marine environment from land-based activities (UNEP GPA). ••>

Small Island Developing States Network (SIDSnet). ••>

International Coral Reef Initiative and other organizations and networks on the threats to coral reefs, including the effects of litter/debris.

Regional conventions, agreements, action plans, projects, and actors

Convention for the Protection of Natural Resources and Environment of the South Pacific Region (Nouméa Convention/SPREP Convention) • South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP). ••>

Convention on Conservation of Nature in the South Pacific (Apia Convention). ••>

Convention to Ban the Importation into Forum Island Countries of Hazardous Wastes and Radioactive Wastes and to Control the Transboundary Movement and Management of Hazardous Wastes within the South Pacific (Waigani Convention). ••>

Action Plan for Managing the Environment of the Pacific Islands Region 2001-2004 (including Pacifc Ocean Pollution Prevention Programme). ••>

UNDP-GEF-SPREP: Strategic Action Programme for the International Waters of the Pacific Small Island Developing States. ••>

Private sector and NGOs actors and initiatives

Ocean Concervancy: International Coastal Cleanup (ICC). ••>

UNEP and Clean up Australia: Clean up the World! ••>

Coastcare, Australia.

Clean Up Australia Day .

Gould League Bay Litter Watch, Australia.

Surfrider Foundation Tasmania: Marine Debris Cleanup.

Marine Litter on Henderson Island.

Marine Education Society of Aotearoa, New Zealand: Seaweek Marine Debris Survey.

Other publications on marine and coastal environment, including marine litter

Article in Marine Pollution Bulletin on marine litter/marine debris in Tasmania, Australia: 1995.

National action

New South Wales Scientific Committee, Australia: The Committee, established by the Threatened Species Conservation Act, has made a Preliminary Determination (October 2003) to support a proposal to list the entanglement in or ingestion of anthropogenic debris in marine and estuarine environments as a key threatening process. See also list of species and populations of animals endangered by or vulnerable to marine litter (debris) entanglement and ingestion.

Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkAuthority, Australia: Marine Parks Debris in the Far Northern Section of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.

EcoRecycle Victoria, Australia (see Waste and Litter Education in Schools)

Parks and Wildlife Service, Tasmania: Threats to seals (from entanglement).

Regional reports on the state of the marine and coastal environment

SPREP: "The main types of pollution within the region are shipping-related pollution, [...] and solid waste management and disposal. [..] Increasing quantities of solid waste, poor control of chemicals imported into the region and the lack of capacity to manage pollutants are primary problems. The limited land area of many of the islands combined with a lack of appropriate technology for waste recycling has resulted in a proliferation of plastics, paper, glass, metal and even drums of hazardous chemicals. Much of this rubbish slowly breaks down and leaches into the soil and into drinking water. What does not break down takes up space. The foul-smelling organic wastes attract disease-carrying pests such as mosquitoes, rats and flies. Piles of household rubbish may be develop on beaches and in mangrove swamps. Tourism, a key money-earner for some Pacific island countries, is also starting to be affected by the spread of litter. The region did have a competitive advantage over other tourist destinations because of the reputed beauty of its lagoons and beaches. But that advantage is shrinking under the weight of solid waste piling up around shorelines and waterways alike."

UNEP: Asia Pacific Environment Outlook2. Published periodically to present the state of environment and its trend in the region. The report aims to critically review the existing status of the environment, the driving forces for changes, and the existing set of policy initiatives undertaken to confront environmental challenges.

Pacific Islands Environment Outlook. Part of a UNEP project to produce state of the environment assessments for the countries of the Caribbean, Western Indian Ocean and Pacific Islands. Co-ordinated by SPREP, on behalf of UNEP and with the financial assistance of the EU.

ESCAP: State of the Environment in Asia and the Pacific 2000.

UNEP GPA: Overview of Land-based pollutant Sources and Activities affecting the Marine, Coastal and Freshwater Environment in the Pacific Islands region.

UNEP GPA: South Pacific Region (brief description of environmental state, priority issues, etc.).

UNEP: Global Environment Outlook 3 (GEO3). Coastal and marine areas.

University of Rhode Island: Large Marine Ecosystems (LME):The Region is made up of the following LMEs: Northeast Australian Shelf and Great Barrier ReefEast-Central Australian ShelfSoutheast Australian ShelfSouthwest Australian ShelfNew Zeeland Shelf.

Entangled Australian fur seal, Tasmania

Photo: ©Steve Johnson, Parks and Wildlife Service, Tasmania).

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