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International actors and agreements in the region

See Global action.

UNEP Global programme of action for the protection of the marine environment from land-based activities (UNEP GPA). ••>

Regional conventions, agreements, action plans and actors

Antarctic Treaty • Protocol on Environmental Protection (Madrid Protocol) • Committee for Environmental Protection (CEP). ••>

Convention on the Conservation of Antartic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) • CCAMLR Commission. ••>

National action

Australian Antarctic Division (ADD): Waste Management in Antarctica. See also Cleaning up Antarctica. • Marine debris in the Southern Ocean. The AAD is researching the amount and nature of debris on Macquarie and Heard Islands to determine its harmful effects and how best to limit them. • Marine debris.

British Antarctic Survey. An institute of the National Environmental Research Council. Has undertaken most of the British scientific research in and around Antarctica.

New Zealand Antarctic Institute (Antarctica New Zealand). Responsible for developing, managing and administering New Zealand activities in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean, in particular the Ross Sea Dependency. Responsible for maintaining and enhancing the quality of New Zealand scientific research, and taking an active role in environmental stewardship through special projects and ongoing management.

Mission Antarctica . An initiative through which 1,000 tons of waste has been removed from the Russian research station at Bellingshausen, King George Island, Antarctica. Teachers and students from around the world, representing 14 countries, participated in the clean-up operation that removed the mountain of tangled metal and waste from the station and additional waste from Chilean, Polish, and Uruguayan bases in Antarctica. The rusting remains of equipment and other waste from the research stations were transported to Uruguay for recycling and safe disposal. In addition, a small amount of "mixed oils and paint residues" has been consigned to a specialist treatment company in Europe for disposal. More about the cleanup.

  Regional reports on the state of the marine and coastal environment

The Committee for Environmental Protection (Antarctic Treaty) is in the process of preparing a State of the Environment report for Antarctica.

New Zealand Antarctic Institute: "Ross Sea Region 2001: A State of Environment Report for the Ross Sea Region of Antarctica".

UNEP: Global Environment Outlook 3 (GEO3). Coastal and marine areas.

Large Marine Ecosystems (LME): Antarctic LME. University of Rhode Island.

State of the Antarctic environment. Presented by UN Secretary General to the 1996 UN General Assembly.

Other publications on marine and coastal environment, including marine litter

" Origins and Biological Accumulation of Small Plastic Particles in Fur Seals from Macquarie Island". Article in Ambio 6/2003.

Articles in Marine Pollution Bulletin on marine litter/marine debris in Antarctica: 1997 and 1995.

"Entanglement of Antarctic fur seals, Arctocephalus gazella, in marine debris at Cape Shirreff and San Telmo Islets, Livington Island, Antarctica: 1988-1997". Document presented to the CCAMLR Scientific Committee in 1997. Published by the Instituto Antártico Chileno

"Survey experience on marine debris at Cape Shirreff, Livingstone Island, Antarctica". Illustrated paper by Daniel Torres and Doris Jorquera, Instituto Antártico Chileno, presented at the 2000 International Conference on Marine Debris, Honolulu, Hawai'i.

Private sector and NGOs actors and initiatives

Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition (ASOC). A non-governmentak organisation comprised of two hundred and fortymember groups in fifty countries. ASOC works to ensure that the environment comes first when decisions are made under the Antarctic Treaty System.

Antarctic fur seal badly injured by fishing debris at Cape Shirreff, Antarctica. Photo: © Rodrigo Hucke-Gaete, Instituto de Ecología y Evolución, Universidad Austral de Chile).

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